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July 27, 2017

Bill of Rights Is "Gutted" by Bureaucrats' Administrative Law




(p. A13) Unelected bureaucrats not only write their own laws, they also interpret these laws and enforce them in their own courts with their own judges. All this is in blatant violation of the Constitution, says Mr. Hamburger, 60, a constitutional scholar and winner of the Manhattan Institute's Hayek Prize last year for his scholarly 2014 book, "Is Administrative Law Unlawful?" (Spoiler alert: Yes.)

"Essentially, much of the Bill of Rights has been gutted," he says, sitting in his office at Columbia Law School. "The government can choose to proceed against you in a trial in court with constitutional processes, or it can use an administrative proceeding where you don't have the right to be heard by a real judge or a jury and you don't have the full due process of law. Our fundamental procedural freedoms, which once were guarantees, have become mere options."

​In volume and complexity, the edicts from federal agencies exceed the laws passed by Congress by orders of magnitude. "The administrative state has become the government's predominant mode of contact with citizens," Mr. Hamburger says. "Ultimately this is not about the politics of left or right. Unlawful government power should worry everybody."



For the full interview, see:


John Tierney, interviewer. "The Tyranny of the Administrative State." The Wall Street Journal (Sat., June 10, 2017): A13.

(Note: the online version of the interview has the date June 9, 2017.)


The book by Hamburger mentioned in the passage quoted above, is:

Hamburger, Philip. Is Administrative Law Unlawful? Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2014.






July 26, 2017

Silicon Valley "Oligarchs" Block Upward Mobility of Masses




Bill Gates, Jaron Lanier, Tim Berners-Lee, and others have suggested that a fairer system of information technology property rights would enable micropayments for intellectual content posted to blogs and Facebook. This also would allow upward mobility. The value of the intellectual contributions is currently being unfairly appropriated by mega-server companies such as Google and Facebook.


A different kind of socialism

The oligarchs of the Bay Area have a problem: They must square their progressive worldview with their enormous wealth. They certainly are not socialists in the traditional sense. They see their riches not as a result of class advantages, but rather as reflective of their meritocratic superiority. As former TechCrunch reporter Gregory Ferenstein has observed, they embrace massive inequality as both a given and a logical outcome of the new economy.

The nerd estate is definitely not stupid, and like rulers everywhere, they worry about a revolt of the masses, and even the unionization of their companies. Their gambit is to expand the welfare state to keep the hoi polloi in line. Many, including Mark Zuckerberg, now favor an income stipend that could prevent mass homelessness and malnutrition.

How socialism morphs into feudalism

Unlike its failed predecessor, this new, greener socialism seeks not to weaken, but rather to preserve, the emerging class structure. Brown and his acolytes have slowed upward mobility by environment restrictions that have cramped home production of all kinds, particularly the building of moderate-cost single-family homes on the periphery. All of this, at a time when millennials nationwide, contrary to the assertion of Brown's "smart growth" allies, are beginning to buy cars, homes and move to the suburbs.



For the full commentary, see:


KOTKIN, Joel. "California's Descent to Socialism." Orange County Register, Posted: June 11, 2017. URL: http://www.ocregister.com/2017/06/11/californias-descent-to-socialism/

(Note: bold headings in original.)






July 25, 2017

Bezos Resurrects Washington Post Through High-Quality Journalism




(p. B1) As a private company since 2013, when the deep-pocketed Amazon founder Jeff Bezos bought it for $250 million, The Post doesn't disclose much financial data. But by all visible measures, including the vital but hard-to-measure buzz factor, the resurrection of The Post, both editorially and financially, in less than four years has been little short of astonishing.

The Post has said that it was prof-(p. B4)itable last year -- and not through cost-cutting. On the contrary, under the newsroom leadership of Martin Baron, the former editor of The Boston Globe memorably portrayed in the film "Spotlight," The Post has gone on a hiring spree. It has hired hundreds of reporters and editors and has more than tripled its technology staff.


. . .


Scoops -- and high-quality journalism more generally -- are integral to The Post's business model at a time when the future of digital journalism seemed to be veering toward the lowest common denominator of exploding watermelons and stupid pet tricks.

"Investigative reporting is absolutely critical to our business model," Mr. Baron told me. "We add value. We tell people what they didn't already know. We hold government and powerful people and institutions accountable. This cannot happen without financial support. We're at the point where the public realizes that and is willing to step up and support that work by buying subscriptions."



For the full story, see:

JAMES B. STEWART. "Common Sense; The Post's Latest Bombshell: It's Thriving in Digital News." The New York Times (Sat., MAY 20, 2017): B1 & B4.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MAY 19, 2017, and has the title "Common Sense; Washington Post, Breaking News, Is Also Breaking New Ground.")






July 24, 2017

"Gratuitously Stupid" Petunia Regulations




(p. A17) Sometimes government regulators do things that are not merely misguided but gratuitously stupid. A classic example came last month, when the U.S. Department of Agriculture called for the destruction of at least 13 varieties of petunias with striking hues. These plants don't pose any danger to health or the natural environment. But because they were crafted with modern genetic-engineering techniques, technically they're in violation of 30-year-old government regulations.

These petunias, first developed in the 1980s, were sold around the globe for years without incident. Then in 2015 a Finnish plant scientist noticed bright-orange petunias at a train station in Helsinki.


. . .


He tipped off Finnish regulators, who notified their counterparts in Europe and North America. Since no government had issued permits to sell these varieties, the result was a petunia purge. Untold numbers of beautiful and completely harmless flowers and seeds were destroyed.


. . .


If a researcher wants to perform a field trial with a regulated article such as the forbidden petunias, he must submit extensive paperwork to the Agriculture Department. After conducting tests for years at many sites, the developer can then submit a large dossier of data and request "deregulation" by the USDA for cultivation and sale.

These requirements make genetically engineered plants extraordinarily expensive to develop and test. On average, each costs about $136 million, according to Wendelyn Jones of DuPont Crop Protection. This probably is why the developers of the genetically engineered petunias never commercialized them legally. At around $5 for 5,000 seeds, there is no way to recover the regulatory costs.



For the full commentary, see:

Henry I. Miller. "Attack of the Killer Petunias; Harmless flowers are destroyed since they were genetically modified but not Washington-approved." The Wall Street Journal (Tues., June 13, 2017): A17.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the commentary has the date June 12, 2017.)






July 23, 2017

Human Species Is Highly Adaptable to Climate Variation




(p. A15) In "Evolution's Bite," paleoanthropologist Peter S. Ungar follows the stories encapsulated in our enamel-coated anatomy.

Mr. Ungar's story isn't so much about teeth themselves as about the sweeping tale of human evolution as seen through the mouth.


. . .


Unpredictability in climate and resources, Mr. Ungar emphasizes, has made us a species adapted to variation. Drawing from the work of researchers like Elisabeth Vrba and Rick Potts, he underscores how environmental shifts influence our evolution just as they have for other animals. The invention of culture did not somehow free us from nature. Our existence and continuing evolution are still influenced by shifts in climate and their effects. Humans didn't become locked into just one narrow mode of life but rather became a flexible species as comfortable above the Arctic Circle as on the equator. "Climate change," he writes, "drove human evolution, in large part by swapping out food options available on the biospheric buffet."

This new story--that humans became adapted to the variability of the world rather than any one set of conditions--hasn't had time to become pop-culture canon just yet. Images of Man the Hunter stepping out onto the savanna in search of big game still dominate. "The story used to be simpler," Mr. Ungar writes, when it seemed that "the spreading savanna coaxed our ancestors down from the trees, and the challenges it brought made them human." All the same, the mounting swell of research doesn't show a slow and steady transition from a chilly Ice Age world to the warmer one we know today. Instead, Mr. Ungar points out, temperatures dipped and spiked in a haphazard pattern prior to our influence on the climate, having an overall trajectory that we can detect now but that probably would have seemed simply chaotic to the people and creatures living through it.



For the full review, see:

Brian Switek. "BOOKSHELF; Chewing Over History." The Wall Street Journal (Weds., May 31, 2017): A15.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date May 30, 2017, and the title "BOOKSHELF; Chewing Over Humanity's History.")


The book under review, is:

Ungar, Peter S. Evolution's Bite: A Story of Teeth, Diet, and Human Origins. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017.






July 22, 2017

Small, Obscure Firm Innovates to Keep Moore's Law Alive




(p. B1) VELDHOVEN, the Netherlands-- ASML Holding NV, a little-known company based next to corn fields here, may hold the answer to a question hanging over the global semiconductor industry: how to make chips do more while keeping them the same, compact size.

The industry's past prowess has been codified into what's been called Moore's Law, named after an observation Intel Corp. co-founder Gordon Moore first made in 1965. He postulated that chip makers could double the number of transistors in--and boost the performance of--a typical microprocessor every two years.

Last year, though, Intel Chief Executive Brian Krzanich warned that after decades of incredible leaps, that timeline was slipping closer to every 2.5 years. Some in the industry feared the eventual death of Moore's Law, a rule of thumb underpinning modern computing.

ASML believes its breakthrough technology can postpone the demise. "I'm not concerned yet about the next 10-plus years," said Hans Meiling, who oversees ASML's effort trying to solve this problem.

Many in the industry, including big backers like Intel itself and Samsung Electronics Co. , are hoping ASML can quicken the pace of innovation once again. With around 15,000 employees and €6.3 billion ($7.05 billion) in revenue last year, the company manufactures equipment that makes chips--specializing in a field called photolithography. Specifically, ASML uses light rays to essentially lay out billions of transistors--the brain cells of a chip--in a microprocessor.



For the full story, see:

Stu Woo and Maarten van Tartwijk. "Dutch Company Aims to Make Chips Do More." The Wall Street Journal (Mon., Oct. 3, 2016): B1 & B5.

(Note: the online version of the story has the title "Can This Little-Known Chip Company Preserve Moore's Law?")






July 21, 2017

Britain's Socialist National Health Service Failed to Update Old Software




(p. A4) LONDON -- Martin Hardy was in his hospital gown, about to be wheeled into the operating room for knee surgery on Saturday morning [May 13, 2017] at Royal London Hospital in East London, when, he said, his operation was abruptly canceled.

Mr. Hardy, 52, a caregiver for his father, said his surgeon told him the operation could not be carried out because the hospital's computer system was not working and his condition was not life-threatening.

"I was in my hospital robe literally about to go in," he said, wincing as he stood on crutches outside the hospital, waiting for a taxi home. "How can anyone in their right mind do such a thing?" he added, referring to the people behind the devastating cyberattack that affected organizations in nearly 100 countries and sent tremors across Britain's National Health Service.

A day after one of the largest "ransomware" attacks on record, which left thousands of computers at companies in Europe, universities in Asia and hospitals in Britain still crippled or shut down on Saturday, Amber Rudd, the British home secretary, told the BBC that the N.H.S. needed to learn from what had happened and upgrade its information technology system.


. . .


Ms. Rudd conceded that the N.H.S., where many computers had outdated software vulnerable to malware and ransomware, had been ill prepared, despite numerous warnings. "I would expect N.H.S. trusts to learn from this and to make sure that they do upgrade," she said.


. . .


"You can't blame the hospital, but surely the N.H.S. knew this could happen?" he said, his face reddening with anger. "And I don't understand why their computers weren't secure. We all pay into the N.H.S., and this is what we get. What on earth is going on in this country?"


. . .


Dr. Krishna Chinthapalli, a senior resident at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, who predicted a cyberattack on the N.H.S. in an article published in the British Medical Journal a few days before the attack, said it was disturbing.

"I had expected an attack," he said in an interview. "But not on this scale."

He had warned in the article that hospitals were especially vulnerable to ransomware attacks because they held vital data, and were probably more willing than others to pay a ransom to recover it. He said in the interview that many of the N.H.S. computers still ran Windows XP, an out-of-date software.



For the full story, see:

DAN BILEFSKY. "British Patients Suffer as Hospitals Race to Revive Computer Systems." The New York Times, First Section (Sun., MAY 14, 2017): 11.

(Note: ellipses, and bracketed date, added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MAY 13, 2017, and has the title "British Patients Reel as Hospitals Race to Revive Computer Systems.")






July 20, 2017

Deregulation Can Stimulate Dynamism and Economic Growth




(p. A15) Various estimates suggest that had U.S. productivity growth not slowed, GDP would be about $3 trillion higher than it is today.


. . .


Many economists contend that properly counting free digital services from companies like Google and Facebook would substantially boost productivity and GDP growth. One of the highest estimates, calculated by economists Austan Goolsbee and Peter Klenow, stands at $800 billion. That's a big number, but not big enough to fill a $3 trillion hole.


. . .


In his 2016 book, "The Rise and Fall of American Growth," Northwestern University economist Robert Gordon contends that the current economy fails to measure up to the great inventions of the past, and that innovation today is more incremental than transformative. He has argued vigorously that the transformative effects of technologies like electric lighting, indoor plumbing, elevators, autos, air travel and television are unlikely to be repeated. Technological innovation, he argues, will not be sufficiently robust to counter the headwinds of slowing population growth, rising inequality and exploding sovereign debt.

Former Treasury Secretary Larry Summers has resurrected Alvin Hansen's 1938 theory of secular stagnation. Morgan Stanley economist Ruchir Sharma has argued that a 2% economy is the new normal. Former Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan has repeatedly said that the growing share of social benefits and entitlements in GDP crowds out national savings and reduces investments required to boost productivity growth.

The growth dividends from disruptive technology often require time before they are widely diffused and used. To Mr. Gordon's point, economic historians respond that the Industrial Revolution did not improve British living standards for almost a century. Likewise the productivity boost spurred by the transformative innovations of the early 20th century took decades to kick in.

In the short term, as companies try to develop online capabilities while maintaining a physical presence, some costs are duplicated.


. . .


It's possible that economic dynamism and entrepreneurship are no longer driving the U.S. economy. Startups are being created at a slower pace. From 1996 to 2007 the ratio of new firms to the total number of firms oscillated between 9.6 and 11.2. Today it has dropped to 7.8. Existing firms do innovate and contribute to improved productivity, but the declining share of young firms suggests a less dynamic economy.

Concurrently, the most recent numbers from the Bureau of Labor Statistics confirm that churn in the U.S. labor market remains weak across industries, regions and age groups. People are simply not moving or changing jobs for better alternatives.


. . .


The real debate is about policies that favor productivity and GDP growth. Predicting future innovation is hazardous, but deregulation and streamlined licensing requirements will facilitate job mobility. Tax reform that encourages and rewards investment should stimulate capital investment.


. . .


These necessary policy changes provide options for improving productivity and GDP growth. Waiting for the data debate to resolve itself gets us nowhere.



For the full commentary, see:

Brian Switek. "The Great Productivity Slowdown; It began long before the financial crisis, and it has worsened markedly in the past six years." The Wall Street Journal (Fri., May 5, 2017): A15.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the commentary has the date May 4, 2017.)


The Goolsbee and Klenow article mentioned above, is:

Goolsbee, Austan, and Peter J. Klenow. "Valuing Consumer Products by the Time Spent Using Them: An Application to the Internet." American Economic Review 96, no. 2 (May 2006): 108-13.






July 19, 2017

Socialized Medicine Seeks to Ensure "No One Does Anything New or Interesting"




(p. A15) Heart surgeons are among the superstars of the medical profession, possessing finely tuned skills and a combination of detachment and sheer guts that enables them to carve open fellow human beings and hold the most vital human organ in their hands. In "Open Heart," British cardiac surgeon Stephen Westaby shares often astonishing stories of his own operating-room experiences, illuminating the science and art of his specialty through the patients whose lives he has saved and, in some cases, lost.


. . .


One theme in "Open Heart" is Dr. Westaby's frustration with Britain's National Health Service, which, he says, values saving money over saving lives. He grows frustrated as he tries to get the reluctant government-run payer to cover the costs of advanced interventions. There are other problems too: Dire situations often get worse, he says, because of treatment delays and poor attention to best practices, like administering clot-busting drugs after a heart attack. Medical directors, he says, seem intent on ensuring that "no one does anything new or interesting."



For the full review, see:

Laura Landro. "BOOKSHELF; Priming the Pump; One procedure involved implanting a turbine heart-pumping device and screwing a titanium plug, Frankenstein-like, into the skull." The Wall Street Journal (Fri., July 14, 2017): A15.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date July 13, 2017.)


The book under review, is:

Westaby, Stephen. Open Heart: A Cardiac Surgeon's Stories of Life and Death on the Operating Table. New York: Basic Books, 2017.






July 18, 2017

"Startling" Chinese Government Report Faults Slow and Tepid Reform "Stalemate"




(p. B1) BEIJING -- China's ambitious plan to revamp its economy has bogged down. Flabby state conglomerates have thwarted attempts to whip them into commercial shape. Rules that treat millions of city-dwelling rural migrants like second-class citizens have barely budged.

Such criticisms are common from skeptical foreign economists who have long argued that President Xi Jinping's efforts to remake China's economy and fix pernicious social problems have been too slow and tepid.

But these withering findings on China's reforms come from a startling place: from within the government itself.

Just as striking, this unflattering report card from a Chinese state think tank -- published this month with little fanfare -- faults misconceived "top-level design" in policies, as well as local bureaucrats and state managers reluctant to change.


. . .


It concludes: "Reform has to some extent fallen into stalemate."

The report brings into focus a sharpening debate in China about economic priorities. Experts inside and outside China say the country's economy needs to be overhauled to continue growing fast enough to provide jobs and higher incomes for its people.


. . .


(p. B5) The new report, a 217-page study titled "The Reform Obstruction Phenomenon," was written by researchers from the Economic System and Management Institute of China's National Development and Reform Commission, which steers policy on industry, energy and many other sectors. The head of the commission, He Lifeng, and his deputy, Liu He, both have ties to Mr. Xi. But nothing in the report suggests that it had their blessing. The authors declined to be interviewed.



For the full story, see:

CHRIS BUCKLEY. "Still Waiting for Reforms." The New York Times (Tues., MARCH 28, 2017): B1 & B5.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MARCH 27, 2017, and has the title "In Rare Move, Chinese Think Tank Criticizes Tepid Pace of Reform.")






July 17, 2017

Pineapple Displays "Plodding Banality" of Conceptual Art




(p. A4) LONDON -- How did a pineapple become a postmodern masterpiece?

The aesthetic merits of tropical fruit inadvertently entered Britain's national cultural conversation after two students jokingly placed a store-bought pineapple on an empty table at an art exhibition this month at Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, a port city in northeastern Scotland.

When they returned a few days later to the exhibition -- part of the Look Again festival, which aims to highlight Aberdeen's cultural heritage -- they were shocked to discover their pineapple protected by a glass display case, instantly and mysteriously transformed into a work of art.

After one of the students, Lloyd Jack, 22, who studies business, put a photograph of the pineapple on Twitter, along with the words, "I made art," the image was shared widely on social media, turning the fruit, fairly or not, into a cultural sensation. To some, though, the stunt was a self-promoting social media prank befitting the digital age.

Mr. Jack's post received nearly 5,000 likes on Twitter. Before long, the work, which the two students titled "Pineapple," had been deconstructed on art blogs and social media worldwide; parsed in Paris, Texas and Tokyo; and even featured on Canadian television. Some on Twitter lauded its "genius," while others ridiculed it as the latest example of conceptual art's plodding banality.


. . .


Others saw hidden meaning in the pineapple, including an art professor at the university who, Mr. Gray said, enthusiastically lauded the "purposeful way" in which the display case had pressed down on the fruit's leaves.

"It just goes to show the ludicrousness of conceptual art and how anything can become art," Mr. Jack said.


. . .


Peter York, an author and cultural commentator, noted that the pineapple display, consciously or not, wittily reflected Duchamp's notion that if you declare something art, it becomes art.

"I rank pineapples quite highly as they are quite decorative objects, sort of colonial superfruits, with leaves that look like green fountains at the top," he said. "But you wouldn't really want a pineapple exhibited in your home."



For the full story, see:

DAN BILEFSKY. "Scots Plumb a Pineapple's Hidden Meaning After it Becomes Accidental Art." The New York Times (Fri., MAY 12, 2017): A4.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MAY 11, 2017, and has the title "How a Humble Pineapple Became Art.")






July 16, 2017

Level 3 Failed, In Spite of a Well-Executed, Plausible Business Plan




Level3StockPricesGraph2017-06-09.jpgSource of graph: online version of the Omaha World-Herald article quoted and cited below.




(p. 1D) Thomas Dowd and hundreds of other Omahans soon will be digging out their Level 3 Communications Inc. stock records. • The reason: This week, Level 3 shareholders are voting to sell the company to Century Link Communications. • The sale marks the end of an investment saga that began 20 years ago with hopes of riches but ended with big losses for most shareholders, despite the efforts of some of Omaha's biggest names in business. • "It was a very bad experience," said Dowd, a retired attorney and former director of the Metropolitan Utilities District. "It's just one purchase at a time, and you think everything's going good and then, bam! Anyway, lesson learned." • Although his loss was "substantial," he said, it didn't disrupt his lifestyle, and he figures he's better off than shareholders who lost their retirement savings or other vital funds. He's still a Level 3 shareholder and will get some cash and Century Link shares in the sale, which is scheduled for September [2017].

(p. 4D) But it works out to about $4.43 for shares he bought years ago, some of them costing more than $100.


. . .


On March 20, 2000, someone sold and someone bought Level 3 shares for $132.25, a price that made the company's publicly traded stock worth nearly $20 billion. By 2002, the price had nearly collapsed, putting most shareholders into the red.

Level 3 might have an information highway, but its toll system wasn't collecting enough to earn a profit. It was clear that the nation had a "bandwidth glut," a huge overcapacity of fiber networks.

Level 3 had installed its network, at an eventual cost of $14 billion, and could cheaply add more lines by stringing extra cable through its conduits.

But others had built networks, too, and the demand for bandwidth wasn't growing as Crowe had hoped. Researchers also found ways to send more data along existing fibers, meaning greater capacity along existing lines.

Most of the new fiber networks were unused, or "dark." Only a fraction of fibers in the buried bundles were "lit" by the light waves that carried digital communications and brought in revenue for companies like Level 3.

The supply of fiber far outran the demand, and Level 3's losses mounted, along with its stock price. Investors lost confidence that the company would begin making profits anytime soon. In fact, that didn't happen until 2014.


. . .


Dowd, the retired attorney, said he held onto the shares because it didn't seem worthwhile to sell at the lower prices and he figured someone would buy the company and he would get some of his money back.

"I always thought Walter Scott was going to pull a rabbit out of the hat," he said. "He never did."



For the full story, see:

STEVE JORDON. "END OF THE LINE FOR LEVEL 3; Omaha-born company, which laid fiber-optic cable, will cease to exist." Omaha World-Herald (Sun., March 12, 2017): 1D & 4D.

(Note: ellipses added.)






July 15, 2017

Geoengineering for the Timid




(p. A15) In 2012, a man named Russ George, working with the Haida people of British Columbia, tried an experiment. From the back of a rusty fishing vessel he spread 120 tons of iron-rich dust on the surface of the North Pacific Ocean. The result was a bloom of plankton, visible by satellite--and a quadrupling of the salmon catch along the coast of the Northeast Pacific. This may or may not have been a coincidence, but it was the intended result.


. . .


Far from being thanked, Mr. George was pilloried for failing to get permission for this rogue "geoengineering" gesture. A second experiment by German scientists in the Antarctic Ocean was stopped by the German government under pressure from environmentalists. A United Nations treaty--the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution--was changed to forbid "any activity undertaken by humans with the principal intention of stimulating primary productivity in the oceans." This seems a strangely defeatist prohibition, given that a more productive ocean would not only feed more people (and whales) but also sequester more carbon dioxide from the air, through photosynthesis by plankton, potentially providing a self-financing way to prevent possible future climate change.


. . .


. . . Mr. Biello is a writer from Scientific American and is impeccably sympathetic to the environmental movement. The result is a book that explores an intriguing topic but lacks a hard edge or even a clear message.


. . .


Just in the choice of stories to tell, though, the book leans toward the notion that the solution to our environmental challenges will come from technology, and in that sense it is most welcome. Technical fixes are anathema to many environmentalists, but it has been obvious for some time now that innovation and adaptation are the way we will reverse or cope with pollution, habitat loss and climate change. By contrast, a retreat to some golden age of simpler lives more dependent on organic and natural resources is neither possible nor likely to be good for nature: Seven billion people going back to nature would leave nature in a parlous state. The way we will save the planet is by high-tech invention and prosperity, not low-tech simplification and asceticism.



For the full review, see:

Matt Ridley. "BOOKSHELF; Ruling Over Our Dominion; We are living in the Anthropocene: an era when human beings have changed the planet in ways that will be obvious in the geological record." The Wall Street Journal (Thurs., Nov. 17, 2016): A15.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date Nov. 16, 2016.)


The book under review, is:

Biello, David. The Unnatural World: The Race to Remake Civilization in Earth's Newest Age. New York: Scribner, 2016.







July 14, 2017

Equal Opportunity Gene Innovation




(p. R4) Kian Sadeghi has postponed homework assignments, sports practice and all the other demands of being a 17-year-old high-school junior for today. On a Saturday afternoon, he is in a lab learning how to use Crispr-Cas9, a gene-editing technique that has electrified scientists around the world--. . .


. . .


Crispr-Cas9 is easier, faster and cheaper than previous gene-editing techniques.


. . .


A do-it-yourself Crispr kit with enough material to perform five experiments gene-editing the bacteria included in the package is available online for $150. Genspace, the Brooklyn, N.Y., community lab where Mr. Sadeghi is learning how to use Crispr to edit a gene in brewer's yeast, charges $400 for four intensive sessions. More than 80 people have taken the classes since the lab started offering them last year.


. . .


In the workshop, if the participants correctly edit the gene in brewer's yeast, the cells will turn red. In between the prep work, the classmates swap stories on why they are there. Many have personal Crispr projects in mind and want to learn the technique.

Kevin Wallenstein, a chemical engineer, takes a two-hour train ride to the lab from his home in Princeton, N.J. Crispr is a hobby for him, he says. He wants to eventually use it to edit a gene in an edible fruit that he prefers not to name, to restore it to its historical color. "I always wondered what it would look like," he says.

At the workshop, Mr. Wallenstein shares his Crispr goal with Will Shindel, Genspace's lab director. Mr. Shindel is enthusiastic; he has started his own Crispr project, a longtime dream to make a spicy tomato. Both men say they aren't looking to commercialize their ideas--but they would like to eat what they create someday, if they get permission from the lab. "I'm doing it for fun," Mr. Shindel says.

When Mr. Sadeghi first wanted to try Crispr, the teenager emailed 20 scientists asking if they would be willing to let him learn Crispr in their labs. Most didn't respond; those that did turned him down. So he did a Google search and stumbled upon Genspace. When he shared the lead with his science teacher at the Berkeley Carroll School in Brooklyn, Essy Levy Sefchovich, she agreed to take the course with him.

When Mr. Shindel describes the steps of the experiment, Ms. Sefchovich takes notes. She is hoping to create a modified version of the yeast experiment so all her students can try Crispr in class.

Later, Mr. Sadeghi recounts that the hardest part of the day was handling the micropipette, the lab tool he used to mix small amounts of liquid. He says he still feels clumsy. Ms. Sefchovich reassures him he'll get the hang of it; he just needs to practice.

"It's like driving," she tells him. "You learn the right feel." Mr. Sadeghi doesn't have his driver's license yet. He figures he'll do Crispr first.



For the full story, see:

Marcus, Amy Dockser. "JOURNAL REPORTS: HEALTH CARE; DIY Gene Editing: Fast, Cheap--and Worrisome; The Crispr technique lets amateurs enter a world that has been the exclusive domain of scientists." The Wall Street Journal (Mon., Feb. 27, 2017): R4.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date Feb. 26, 2017.)






July 13, 2017

Australian Government's Centrally Planned "Costly Internet Bungle"




(p. A6) BRISBANE, Australia -- Fed up with Australian internet speeds that trail those in most of the developed world, Morgan Jaffit turned to a more reliable method of data transfer: the postal system.

Hundreds of thousands of people from around the world have downloaded Hand of Fate, an action video game made by his studio in Brisbane, Defiant Development. But when Defiant worked with an audio designer in Melbourne, more than 1,000 miles away, Mr. Jaffit knew it would be quicker to send a hard drive by road than to upload the files, which could take several days.

"It's really the big file sizes that kill us," said Mr. Jaffit, the company's co-founder and creative director. "When we release an update and there's a small bug, that can kill us by three or four days."

Australia, a wealthy nation with a widely envied quality of life, lags in one essential area of modern life: its internet speed. Eight years after the country began an unprecedented broadband modernization effort that will cost at least 49 billion Australian dollars, or $36 billion, its average internet speed lags that of the United States, most of Western Europe, Japan and South Korea. In the most recent ranking of internet speeds by Akamai, a networking company, Australia came in at an embarrassing No. 51, trailing developing economies like Thailand and Kenya.


. . .


The story of Australia's costly internet bungle illustrates the hazards of mingling telecommunication infrastructure with the impatience of modern politics. The internet modernization plan has been hobbled by cost overruns, partisan maneuvering and a major technical compromise that put 19th-century technology between the country's 21st-century digital backbone and many of its homes and businesses.

The government-led push to modernize its telecommunications system was unprecedented, experts say -- and provides a cautionary tale for others who might like to try something similar.

"Australia was the first country where a totally national plan to cover every house or business was considered," said Rod Tucker, a University of Melbourne professor and a member of the expert panel that advised on the effort.



For the full story, see:

ANDREW McMILLEN. "How Australia Bungled Internet Modernization." The New York Times (Fri., MAY 12, 2017): A6.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MAY 11, 2017, and has the title "How Australia Bungled Its $36 Billion High-Speed Internet Rollout.")









July 12, 2017

Artificial Intelligence (AI) Cannot Automate All Legal Tasks




(p. B1) "There is this popular view that if you can automate one piece of the work, the rest of the job is toast," said Frank Levy, a labor economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "That's just not true, or only rarely the case."

An artificial intelligence technique called natural language processing has proved useful in scanning and predicting what documents will be relevant to a case, for example. Yet other lawyers' tasks, like advising clients, writing legal briefs, negotiating and appearing in court, seem beyond the reach of computerization, for a while.


. . .


(p. B3) Dana Remus, a professor at the University of North Carolina School of Law, and Mr. Levy studied the automation threat to the work of lawyers at large law firms. Their paper concluded that putting all new legal technology in place immediately would result in an estimated 13 percent decline in lawyers' hours.

A more realistic adoption rate would cut hours worked by lawyers by 2.5 percent annually over five years, the paper said. The research also suggests that basic document review has already been outsourced or automated at large law firms, with only 4 percent of lawyers' time now spent on that task.

Their gradualist conclusion is echoed in broader research on jobs and technology. In January, the McKinsey Global Institute found that while nearly half of all tasks could be automated with current technology, only 5 percent of jobs could be entirely automated. Applying its definition of current technology -- widely available or at least being tested in a lab -- McKinsey estimates that 23 percent of a lawyer's job can be automated.



For the full story, see:

STEVE LOHR. "A.I. Is Doing Legal Work. But It Won't Replace Lawyers, Yet.." The New York Times (Mon., MARCH 20, 2017): B1 & B3.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MARCH 19, 2017, and has the title "A.I. Is Doing Legal Work. But It Won't Replace Lawyers, Yet.")


The Remus and Levy article, mentioned above, is:

Remus, Dana, and Frank S. Levy. "Can Robots Be Lawyers? Computers, Lawyers, and the Practice of Law." Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics (forthcoming).






July 11, 2017

"Unfettered Science, If We Have the Courage to Let It Unfold"




(p. 26) "How to Tame a Fox" sets out to answer a simple-seeming question: What makes a dog a dog? Put another way, how did an animal that started out as a bloodthirsty predator become one that now wants nothing more than a nice belly rub and the chance to gaze adoringly at a member of another species? In the late 1950s, a Russian scientist named Dmitri Belyaev decided to address this puzzle by taking the unheard-of tack of replicating the domestication process in real time. He and his colleagues took silver foxes, widely bred in vast Siberian farms for their luxurious pelts, and made them into friendly house pets. It was a deceptively simple process: Take the puppies from only the friendliest foxes, breed them and repeat. Lyudmila Trut, the current lead researcher of the silver fox experiment, who began work as Belyaev's intern, along with Lee Alan Dugatkin, an American scientist and writer at the University of Louisville, documents their monumental effort in this sparkling new book.

Belyaev died in 1985, but the experiment is still ongoing, with 56 generations of foxes bred to date -- a far cry from the snarling creatures that used to snap at the hands of their caretakers when the research began. The new foxes run toward people, jump on the bed and nuzzle one another as well as their human caretakers. Such a behavioral transformation was to some degree expected, since they were bred from the tamest members of their groups. Perhaps more intriguing, they also look more doglike, with floppy ears, wagging tails and piebald fur.


. . .


The book, . . . , is not only about dogs, or foxes, or even science under siege from political interests. . . . It may serve -- particularly now -- as a parable of the lessons that can emerge from unfettered science, if we have the courage to let it unfold.



For the full review, see:

MARLENE ZUK. "Fox and Friends." The New York Times Book Review (Sun., MAY 7, 2017): 26.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date MAY 5, 2017, and has the title "How Do You Make a Fox Your Friend? Fast-Forward Evolution.")


The book under review, is:

Dugatkin, Lee Alan, and Lyudmila Trut. How to Tame a Fox (and Build a Dog): Visionary Scientists and a Siberian Tale of Jump-Started Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.






July 10, 2017

Africans Cross Deserts and Brave Razor Wire to Enter Small European Enclave




(p. A10) About 600 Africans tried to breach a border fence between Morocco and the Spanish enclave of Ceuta early Monday, Spanish news organizations reported, three days after hundreds of migrants used wire cutters and other implements to storm the 20-foot-high barrier.

Ceuta and Melilla, territories of Spain on the North African coast, have the only two land borders between the European Union and Africa, and they have become a magnet for sub-Saharan migrants willing to cross deserts, brave razor wire and endure perilous conditions in search of a better life.

Eleven migrants were injured while attempting to cross the five-mile barrier on Monday and have been hospitalized, the Red Cross said.



For the full story, see:

DAN BILEFSKY. "More Migrants Storm Fence Into Spanish Enclave in Africa, Spanish Enclave in Africa." The New York Times (Tues., FEB. 21, 2017): A10.

(Note: ellipsis, and bracketed date, added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date FEB. 20, 2017, and has the title "More Migrants Storm Fence to Enter Ceuta, Spanish Enclave in Africa.")






July 9, 2017

In Spite of Anxiety about Fatal Mistakes, Starzl Persevered




(p. A10) As he completed his medical training in the late 1950s, Thomas Starzl searched for a way to make his name in the annals of medicine. In an interview late in his life, he recalled asking himself: "What's out there that needs development but looks impossible?"

The choice seemed obvious to him: transplanting organs.

He became the first surgeon to transplant a human liver successfully in 1967 and went on to do hundreds more, in dicey operations that could last as long as 20 hours. Tall, lean and cerebral, he pioneered drug therapies to fight the body's rejection of foreign tissue. Though less famous than Christiaan Barnard, who in 1967 was the first to transplant a heart, Dr. Starzl was often called the "father of transplantation."


. . .


In Miami, crime furnished more than enough gunshot wounds to train a young surgeon. He learned the arts of replacing blood vessels. In his spare time, he experimented on dogs, devised a technique for removing livers and began thinking about how to "install" new ones.

As his surgical skills improved, his anxieties about making potentially fatal mistakes worsened. "With growing concern, I came to believe that I was not emotionally equipped to be a surgeon or to deal with its brutality," he wrote. "I did not like doing the one thing for which I had become uniquely qualified." He also felt it was too late to turn back.



For the full obituary, see:

James R. Hagerty. "'Father of Transplantation' Defeated His Own Doubts." The Wall Street Journal (Sat., MARCH 18, 2017): A10.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date MARCH 17, 2017, and has the title "'Father of Transplantation' Defeated His Own Doubts and Fears.")







July 8, 2017

Large Indian Tribes Hurt by Obama Regulations on Coal




(p. 1) . . . some of the largest tribes in the United States derive their budgets from the very fossil fuels that Mr. Trump has pledged to promote, including the Navajo in the Southwest and the Osage in Oklahoma, as well as smaller tribes like the Southern Ute in Colorado. And the Crow are among several Indian nations looking to the president's promises to nix Obama-era coal rules, pull back on regulations, or approve new oil and gas wells to help them lift their economies and wrest control (p. 14) from a federal bureaucracy they have often seen as burdensome.

The president's executive order on Tuesday [March 28, 2017], which called for a rollback of President Barack Obama's climate change rules, is a step toward some of these goals.

At the tribes' side is Ryan Zinke, who as the new interior secretary is charged with protecting and managing Indian lands, which hold an estimated 30 percent of the nation's coal reserves west of the Mississippi and 20 percent of known oil and gas reserves in the United States.

In a recent interview, Mr. Zinke noted that he was once adopted into the Assiniboine and Sioux tribes and said he would help native nations get fossil fuels to market.

"We have not been a good partner in this," he said. "The amount of bureaucracy and paperwork and stalling in many ways has created great hardship on some of the poorest tribes.

"A war on coal is a war on the Crow people," he continued. "President Trump has promised to end the war."



For the full story, see:

JULIE TURKEWITZ. "Tribes That Live Off Coal Hold Tight to Trump's Promises." The New York Times, First Section (Sun., APRIL 2, 2017): 1 & 14.

(Note: ellipsis, and bracketed date, added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date APRIL 1, 2017, and has the title "Tribes That Live Off Coal Hold Tight to Trump's Promises.")






July 7, 2017

"The Data Run Counter to Your Anecdotes"




(p. A13) "Shattered," by campaign reporters Jonathan Allen and Amie Parnes, narrates the petty bickering, foolish reasoning and sheer arrogance of a campaign that was never the sure thing that its leader and top staffers assumed. The authors, in a mostly successful attempt to get their sources to talk candidly, promised them that they wouldn't be identified.


. . .


The juicy quotes would mean more if they were on the record, but mostly it works: You can't pinpoint the identity of any one "top aide" or "close Hillary ally," but the authors' language leads you to believe they include the most senior Clinton advisers--Mr. Podesta, longtime Clinton confidante Huma Abedin, campaign manager Robby Mook, speechwriter Dan Schwerin, policy adviser Jake Sullivan --and probably the candidate herself.


. . .


Successful politicians must have a tacit sense of what voters want to hear and how they might be persuaded. Mrs. Clinton--in stark contrast to her husband--was never interested in that component of campaigning. You got the feeling she didn't like people all that much.

Mr. Mook's scientific "model" of how the campaign should run emphasized demographics, constituents' voting histories, regional electoral patterns, and so on. When staffers objected to his directives, the authors record, the response was always the same: "The data," as Mr. Mook at one point put it to former President Bill Clinton, "run counter to your anecdotes."



For the full review, see:

Barton Swaim. "BOOKSHELF; Hillary the Unready." The Wall Street Journal (Tues., April 18, 2017): A13.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the review has the date April 17, 2017, and has the title "BOOKSHELF; How Hillary Lost the White House.")


The book under review, is:

Allen, Jonathan, and Amie Parnes. Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton's Doomed Campaign. New York: Crown, 2017.






July 6, 2017

Rain and Snow End California Drought




(p. A18) After six years of a prolonged drought in California, it is all but over. On Friday [April 7, 2017], Gov. Jerry Brown ended the drought emergency for the vast majority of the state. The drought had reduced Folsom Lake, a major reservoir in Northern California, to less than a third of its capacity in 2015, and all but wiped out the Sierra Nevada snowpack.


. . .


But the state's hydrologic picture brightened significantly beginning in October 2016, when a series of massive storms drenched Northern California. The rain and snow continued through the winter, swelling major reservoirs to the point that officials were forced to make releases.

Meanwhile, the state's snowpack made an impressive recovery. As of Friday, the water content in the state's snowpack was about 160 percent of what is considered normal for this time of year. By comparison, the snowpack was reported as about 5 percent of average the day Mr. Brown stood on the barren field and ordered mandatory water conservation.



For the full story, see:

MATT STEVENS. "Drenched by Winter Rain, California Is Told 'Drought's Over'." The New York Times (Sat., APRIL 8, 2017): A18.

(Note: ellipsis, and bracketed date, added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date APRIL 7, 2017, and has the title "California, Drenched by Winter Rain, Is Told 'Drought's Over'.")






July 5, 2017

94-Year-Old Applies for Patent on Slow-Hunch Solid State Battery




(p. 7) In 1946, a 23-year-old Army veteran named John Goodenough headed to the University of Chicago with a dream of studying physics. When he arrived, a professor warned him that he was already too old to succeed in the field.

Recently, Dr. Goodenough recounted that story for me and then laughed uproariously. He ignored the professor's advice and today, at 94, has just set the tech industry abuzz with his blazing creativity. He and his team at the University of Texas at Austin filed a patent application on a new kind of battery that, if it works as promised, would be so cheap, lightweight and safe that it would revolutionize electric cars and kill off petroleum-fueled vehicles. His announcement has caused a stir, in part, because Dr. Goodenough has done it before. In 1980, at age 57, he coinvented the lithium-ion battery that shrank power into a tiny package.

We tend to assume that creativity wanes with age. But Dr. Goodenough's story suggests that some people actually become more creative as they grow older. Unfortunately, those late-blooming geniuses have to contend with powerful biases against them.


. . .


Years ago, he decided to create a solid battery that would be safer. Of course, in a perfect world, the "solid-state" battery would also be low-cost and lightweight. Then, two years ago, he discovered the work of Maria Helena Braga, a Portuguese physicist who, with the help of a colleague, had created a kind of glass that can replace liquid electrolytes inside batteries.

Dr. Goodenough persuaded Dr. Braga to move to Austin and join his lab. "We did some experiments to make sure the glass was dry. Then we were off to the races," he said.

Some of his colleagues were dubious that he could pull it off. But Dr. Goodenough was not dissuaded. "I'm old enough to know you can't close your mind to new ideas. You have to test out every possibility if you want something new."

When I asked him about his late-life success, he said: "Some of us are turtles; we crawl and struggle along, and we haven't maybe figured it out by the time we're 30. But the turtles have to keep on walking." This crawl through life can be advantageous, he pointed out, particularly if you meander around through different fields, picking up clues as you go along. Dr. Goodenough started in physics and hopped sideways into chemistry and materials science, while also keeping his eye on the social and political trends that could drive a green economy. "You have to draw on a fair amount of experience in order to be able to put ideas together," he said.



For the full commentary, see:

Kennedy, Pagan. "To Be a Genius, Think Like a 94-Year-Old." The New York Times, SundayReview Section (Sun., APRIL 9, 2017): 7.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the commentary has the date APRIL 7, 2017.)






July 4, 2017

Fed Throws Seniors Under Bus




(p. A1) The average one-year CD hasn't paid more than 1% since 2009, according to Bankrate.com.

The drop in interest rates since the financial crisis cost U.S. savers almost $1 trillion in lost income from savings accounts, CDs and bonds from the start of 2008 through 2015, taking into account money saved on debt costs, according to April 2016 research (p. A2) by insurer Swiss Re.

There are few signs of imminent improvement. The yield on the benchmark 10-year Treasury note has risen since the election to nearly 2.6%, but it is still below the 2.9% it yielded when U.S. stocks hit their low on March 9, 2009.


. . .


Lawmakers such as House Speaker Paul Ryan (R., Wis.) have criticized the Fed's low-rate policy as harmful to savers. Sen. Bob Corker (R., Tenn.) in 2013 said it amounted to "throwing seniors under the bus."



For the full story, see:

Corrie Driebusch and Aaron Kuriloff. "Stocks Have Tripled Since Crisis, but Low Rates Are Still Squeezing Savers." The Wall Street Journal (Thurs., MARCH 9, 2017): A1-A2.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date MARCH 8, 2017, and has the title "Stocks Have Tripled Since Crisis, but Low Rates Are Still Squeezing Savers.")






July 3, 2017

Mitch Daniels Attempts Disruptive Innovation in Higher Ed




(p. A17) Last month's announcement that Indiana's Purdue University would acquire the for-profit Kaplan University shocked the world of higher education. The Purdue faculty are up in arms. The merger faces a series of regulatory obstacles. And it's unclear whether the "New U," as the entity is temporarily named, can be operationally viable or financially successful.

But Purdue's president, Mitch Daniels, is willing to give it a shot.

The venture is unexpected, unconventional and smart. The nature of the partnership--in which Kaplan will transfer its assets to Purdue, a public university--is unprecedented. It's also a rare instance of attempted self-disruption.

There are lessons here from the business world. In the seminal 1997 book, "The Innovator's Dilemma," Harvard professor Clayton Christensen describes how leading companies can do everything "right" and still be thwarted by disruptive competitors. In an effort to appease stakeholders, leaders focus resources on activities that target current customers, promise higher profits, build prestige, and help them play in substantial markets. As Mr. Christensen observes, they play the game the way it's supposed to be played. Meanwhile, a disruptive innovation is changing all the rules.


. . .


The higher-education industry, full of brilliant and competent leaders, is ripe for disruption. Despite mounting political pressure--not to mention the struggles of indebted alumni--most college presidents believe that their institutions are providing students with good value. By and large, they remain comfortable making small, marginal tweaks to their business models. In the meantime, college becomes ever more expensive.

In contrast, Mr. Daniels has a long history of bold, innovative moves.


. . .


Mr. Daniels is setting Purdue on the right course, for good reasons, and he deserves a great deal of credit. As the saying goes, a journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step. For Purdue, the next thousand miles will consist of navigating regulatory approvals, winning the support of stakeholders, and, not least, the hard work of building New U. We can be hopeful, on behalf of those left behind by today's higher education system, that Purdue treads a path that others can follow.



For the full commentary, see:

Alana Dunagan. "The Innovator's Dilemma Hits Higher Ed; Purdue's acquisition of Kaplan University is risky, unconventional, unexpected--and smart." The Wall Street Journal (Tues., May 16, 2017): A17.

(Note: ellipses added.)

(Note: the online version of the commentary has the date May 15, 2017.)


Christensen books relevant to the passages quoted above, are:

Christensen, Clayton M. The Innovator's Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book That Will Change the Way You Do Business. New York: NY: Harper Books, 2000.

Christensen, Clayton M., and Henry J. Eyring. The Innovative University: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the inside Out. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2011.

Christensen, Clayton M., and Michael E. Raynor. The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2003.






July 2, 2017

Apple Hits Record Market Capitalization for Any U.S. Company in History




(p. B20) The world's most valuable listed company just got even more valuable.

Shares of Apple rose 0.6% to an all-time high of $153.99 Tuesday [May 9, 2017], sending its market capitalization above $800 billion, a first for any U.S. company. That level, the latest evidence of how much the stock has risen this year, is a milestone sure to stoke speculation about whether it will be the first public company to be worth $1 trillion.



For the full story, see:


BEN EISEN AND CHRIS DIETERICH. "Apple's Latest Record: An $800 Billion Market Cap." The Wall Street Journal (Weds., May 10, 2017): B20.

(Note: bracketed date added.)

(Note: the online version of the story has the date May 9, 2017, and has the title "Twitch Entices Video Creators With More Revenue Sharing.")






July 1, 2017

Introvert Was Student of Schumpeter and Hayek




(p. A9) As a boy, David Rockefeller idolized his big brother Nelson, a self-assured bon vivant who didn't let the family name stand in the way of a good time--and sometimes furtively shot rubber bands at his siblings during the morning prayer periods imposed by their austere father.

David, by contrast, was shy, insecure and often lonely, retreating into his hobby of collecting beetles and reliant on tutors for companionship.


. . .


A family friend advised him that studying economics would dispel the idea that any job he obtained was due to his family's influence. He took graduate courses at Harvard, including an introduction to economics from Joseph Schumpeter.

He furthered his studies at the London School of Economics, where his tutor was Friedrich von Hayek, a future Nobel laureate. He won a doctorate in economics from the University of Chicago in 1940 after writing a dissertation on overcapacity in industrial plants.



For the full obituary, see:

James R. Hagerty. "Former Chase Leader Overcame Shyness as Child." The Wall Street Journal (Sat., MARCH 25, 2017): A9.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date MARCH 24, 2017, and has the title "David Rockefeller Overcame Youthful Shyness and Insecurities.")






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