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Lenin "Sought to Destroy" Russian Peasants



(p. B14) A forceful, stylish writer with a sweeping view of history, Professor Pipes covered nearly 600 years of the Russian past in "Russia Under the Old Regime," abandoning chronology and treating his subject by themes, such as the peasantry, the church, the machinery of state and the intelligentsia.

One of his most original contributions was to locate many of Russia's woes in its failure to evolve beyond its status as a patrimonial state, a term he borrowed from the German sociologist Max Weber to characterize Russian absolutism, in which the czar not only ruled but also owned his domain and its inhabitants, nullifying the concepts of private property and individual freedom.

With "The Russian Revolution" (1990), Professor Pipes mounted a frontal assault on many of the premises and long-held convictions of mainstream Western specialists on the Bolshevik seizure of power. That book, which began with the simple Russian epigraph "To the victims," took a prosecutorial stance toward the Bolsheviks and their leader, Vladimir Lenin, who still commanded a certain respect and sympathy among Western historians.

Professor Pipes, a moralist shaped by his experiences as a Jew who had fled the Nazi occupation of Poland, would have none of it. He presented the Bolshevik Party as a conspiratorial, deeply unpopular clique rather than the spearhead of a mass movement. He shed new and harsh light on the Bolshevik campaign against the peasantry, which, he argued, Lenin had sought to destroy as a reactionary class. He also accused Lenin of laying the foundation of the terrorist state that his successor, Joseph Stalin, perfected.

"I felt and feel to this day that I have been spared not to waste my life on self-indulgence and self-aggrandizement but to spread a moral message by showing, using examples from history, how evil ideas lead to evil consequences," Professor Pipes wrote in a memoir. "Since scholars have written enough on the Holocaust, I thought it my mission to demonstrate this truth using the example of communism."


. . .


In "The Russian Revolution," he wrote:

"The Russian Revolution was made neither by the forces of nature nor by anonymous masses but by identifiable men pursuing their own advantages. Although it has spontaneous aspects, in the main it was the result of deliberate action. As such it is very properly subject to value judgment."



For the full obituary, see:

William Grimes. "Richard Pipes, Historian Of Russia and Adviser To Reagan, Dies at 94." The New York Times (Friday, May 18, 2018): B14.

(Note: ellipsis added.)

(Note: the online version of the obituary has the date May 17, 2018, and has the title "Richard Pipes, Historian of Russia and Reagan Aide, Dies at 94.")


The early Pipes book, mentioned above, is:

Pipes, Richard. Russia under the Old Regime. revised 2nd ed. London, England: Penguin Books, 1997 [1st ed. 1974].


The later Pipes book, mentioned above, is:

Pipes, Richard. The Russian Revolution. revised 2nd ed. New York: Knopf, 1990.






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